What is personal tempo?
Personal tempo is a hypothesized general speed of activity in a person. The idea is that people have a general level of speed that applies to much of their activity. People with slow personal tempo may cook, walk, talk, read, and wash the dishes slowly. And people with fast personal tempo may do all those things quickly.
The notion of personal tempo has been studied in psychology, but mostly in the first half of the 1900's. The evidence for the existence of personal tempo is mixed (see Do people have a general speed?).
Early attempts to measure Personal Tempo involved repetitive motions, like clapping or tapping a finger which were often assumed to represent a general level of speed of the individual.
Where are we with this question?[edit | edit source]
We are still doing a review of the available research.
- add sources to this list
- maybe put them in zotero or some other citation manager
- pull out relevant quotes
- find relevant sources from inside these papers
Possibly Useful Search Terms[edit | edit source]
- Personal tempo
- Internal tempo
- Behavioral speed
- Speed as a personality trait
- Everyday speed
- General speed
- Spontaneous motor tempo
- Slow mind
- Slow minded
- Slow at everything
Sources[edit | edit source]
- SPEARMAN C. (1927) The Abilities of Man. Macmillan, New York
- Margaret Kennedy, (1929), Speed as a Personality Trait
- Enke, W. (1930) Die Psychomotorik der Konstitutionstypen
- Frischeisen-Köhler, I. (1933). The personal tempo and its inheritance
- Alvhh R. Lauer (1933) Personal "Tempo" or Rhythm
- Allport, G. W., & Vernon, P. E. (1933) The problem of consistency in expressive movement
- Roy M. Dorcus, Ross Harrison (1936) Is Rate of Voluntary Bodily Movement Unitary: The Journal of General Psychology: Vol 18, No 1
- Ross Harrison (1941) Personal Tempo and the Interrelationships of Voluntary and Maximal Rates of Movement
- Himmelweit, H T. (1946) Speed and accuracy of work as related to temperament
- Rimoldi, H. J. A. (1951). Personal tempo. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46(3), 283–303.
- Nicholas M. Temperley (1961) Personal Tempo and Subjective Accentuation: The Journal of General Psychology: Vol 68, No 2
- Birren, J. E., Riegel, K. F., & Morrison, D. F. (1962) Age differences in response speed as a function of controlled variations of stimulus conditions: evidence of a general speed factor
- Martti Takala, Niilo Partanen, (1964), PSYCHOMOTOR EXPRESSION AND PERSONALITY STUDY III. The problem of ‘personal tempo’
- “(I) It has been shown by studies of social perception (e.g., A. Takala, 1953) that an impression of the characteristic quickness of persons is included in the perception of other people. This impression or rating shows considerable interobserver reliability (Cattell, 1946; A. Takala, 1953) and it is clustered with some other ratings of personality traits”
- BALDUCCI, DOMENICK, (1970) COGNITION, PERSONAL TEMPO, AND SUBJECTIVE PASSAGE OF TIME
- Davies, G. L. (1976), Investigations of personal tempo
- “In the first experiment, intercorrelational data were reported which contradicted the view that there is a unitary "personal tempo", though clusters of inter- correlated activities were obtained.”
- A very long and detailed thesis on personal tempo.
- Y.Rim, (1981), Personal tempo, personality, cognitive speed and cognitive performance
- Alexia Baudouin, Sandrine Vanneste & Michel Isingrini (2004) Age-Related Cognitive Slowing: The Role of Spontaneous Tempo and Processing Speed, Experimental Aging Research
- "According to Surwillo (1968), this general behavioral slowing might be explained by a decline in the internal timing mechanism responsible for coordinating neural activities. This internal clock, viewed as an internal tempo that can be assessed by the spontaneous motor tempo, was shown to be slower with advancing age (Vanneste, Pouthas, & Wearden, 2001)."
- Danthiir, V., Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., & Wilhelm, O. (2005) Mental Speed: On Frameworks, Paradigms, and a Platform for the Future.
- (2013) Information Processing Speed in Clinical Populations - Page 254
- H.J. Eysenck (2013) The Structure of Human Personality (Psychology Revivals)
Spontaneous Motor Tempo[edit | edit source]
"Spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) can be observed in many daily activities such as walking, hand clapping, or swimming. It describes the tempo of self-paced regular and repeated movements and corresponds to the preferred and natural pace to carry out isochronous motor actions, hence SMT is also called internal tempo (Boltz, 1994; Vanneste et al., 2001)." Much of the early work on personal tempo assumed that it could be measured by measuring rhythmic activity, in other words, spontaneous motor tempo. It is clear that SMT was taken to indicate a more general speed in early studies. But in later studies that connection was lost. Although research on personal tempo has largely stopped, the use of finger tapping as a measurement has continued. And this seems to be the biggest legacy of that early personal tempo work. It's not entirely clear if SMT accurately measures personal tempo, but it seems plausible that it would.
- Justin London, Marc Thompson, Birgitta Burger, Molly Hildreth & Petri Toiviainen (2019) Tapping doesn’t help: Synchronized self-motion and judgments of musical tempo
- "Martens (2011) asked participants to tap along with music that afforded both faster and slower synchronization rates and found three distinct synchronization strategies: (a) slow tappers, who consistently tapped at slower periods; (b) fast tappers, who consistently tapped at faster periods; and (c) “switchers,” who tapped at both fast and slow periods—though “switchers” did not change their tapping rate within any given trial. Whether one is a “fast tapper” or a “slow tapper” can be related to one’s spontaneous motor tempo (SMT), also known as personal tempo or natural pace. SMT is measured by asking participants, absent any external rhythmic stimulus or context, to simply tap or walk at a comfortable rate that is neither too slow nor too fast."
- Sinead Rocha, Victoria Southgate, Denis Mareschal, (2020) Infant Spontaneous Motor Tempo
- "It has been widely reported that both adult SMT and adult walking cadence lie in the range of 600 ms IOI, or around 120 beats per minute (Fraisse, 1982). One possibility is that this relationship is causal, with walking cadence being the origin of our preferred tempo at which to move, and perhaps even to listen. Studies revealing correlations between anthropometrics (measures of body size) and SMT have been used to argue for this possibility, following the logic that body size may be used as a proxy for walking cadence, as rate of locomotion should be set by the mechanics of the human body (see Repp, 2007; Todd & Lee, 2007, for debate on this subject). Studies of adults suggest larger bodies prefer slower rhythms. Spontaneous Motor Tempo is often measured as the inter‐onset interval (IOI) between a person's self‐paced finger taps (Fraisse, 1982). Adult SMT is highly stable, showing little intra‐individual variability across testing sessions spanning several days (Vanneste, Pouthas, & Wearden, 2001). However, across the lifespan, SMT is known to change. Children's SMT is faster than adults, who are in turn faster than older people, with a cubic relationship suggesting that SMT slows with age during childhood and late adulthood, but remains consistent through mid‐adulthood (aged 18–38 years, M = 630 ms IOI; McAuley, Jones, Holub, Johnston, & Miller, 2006)."
- David Hammerschmidt, Klaus Frieler, and Clemens Wöllner, (2021) Spontaneous Motor Tempo: Investigating Psychological, Chronobiological, and Demographic Factors in a Large-Scale Online Tapping Experiment
- "SMT is a central feature in the psychophysics of time perception and plays a crucial role for timing and time processes. According to McAuley and Jones (2003), prevalent models of time experiences can be classified into interval-based and entrainment-based mechanisms. Interval models assume an “internal clock,” which is described in terms of a pacemaker producing periodic pulses (Treisman, 1963; Grondin, 2010; Allman et al., 2014). Entrainment models like the dynamic attending theory, on the other hand, propose self-sustaining oscillations as the underlying mechanism of time perception, with attentional pulses reflecting attending energy at a given point of time (Jones and Boltz, 1989; Large and Jones, 1999). Both classes of models (i.e., interval-based and entrainment-based) share the assumption of an intrinsic timekeeper, that is the pacemaker in interval models and the oscillator in entrainment models. SMT can be seen as an estimate of this intrinsic timekeeper, reflecting the pacemaker's preferred pulse rate or the oscillator's preferred period, respectively."